And a “Ho, ho, ho!” to you and yours. You can buy these sciency cards at Not on the High Street.
This paper summarizes and codifies the research from more than a hundred scientific papers into one HIV model. Researchers hope that this model will help them to develop new treatments for the disease.
The model accurately depicts the 3D structures of 17 different viral and cellular proteins found in the virus. The viral membrane in the model has 160,000 lipid molecules of eight different types in the same proportions as in the virus.
On the Visual Science website, display labels for the model, look deep inside it, and even rotate the model on your screen.
This model of HIV was on the cover of the special issue of Nature Medicine (September 8, 2010) prepared by the Global HIV Vaccine Enterprise.
In the previous post, I casually mentioned methane and ethane in the atmosphere of Saturn’s moon Titan. I’ve started with the terms in that post and worked back to the supporting concepts so you can read until you get to things you already know.
On recent travels, I’ve seen a lot of rocks and soils that are dark grey, purple, red, and ochre. All of these colors come from iron. This monograph explains how one element can cause so many colors, at least in sandstone: Rainbow of Rocks.
Nasa’s Spitzer telescope has detected the spectral signatures of “buckyballs” in a planetary nebula named Tc 1. A planetary nebula comprises dust and gas around an aging white dwarf star. They are giant molecules of pure carbon. The buckyball is a hollow sphere with chemical formula C60. Like a geodesic dome, it’s a very stable structure.
The researchers also found a larger, more elongated fullerene with formula C70.The researchers were not looking for them in particular but were lucky to find them in the course of other research. The star’s temperature, in the infrared, is ideal for spectroscopy of fullerenes.
Possible fullerenes have been detected in interstellar gases, but have not yet been confirmed. They are important because of their unusual chemistry.
In 1970, researcher Eiji Osawa calculated that C60 molecules could exist, but they were not detected until 1985 when researchers found them by simulating the atmosphere of an aging, carbon-rich star. Sir Harry Kroto, Bob Curl, and Rick Smalley won the 1996 Nobel Prize in chemistry for the discovery of buckyballs. They have since been found in candle soot!