The Battle of Bosworth, 1485

Today is the 523rd anniversary of the Battle of Bosworth, in which King Richard III of England was killed by a French invasion force under Henry Tudor. Tudor won the battle and proceeded to eliminate all heirs to the throne (which he was not) by a series of trumped-up charges that amounted to judicial murder. But, as someone once said, you can’t bring a capital charge against a pair of children. Seventeen years later, Henry announced that Richard had had his nephews, the who would have been Richard’s heirs, killed in secret. But Richard had made no attempt to hamper other heirs to the throne. Who would benefit by getting rid of the princes? Only Henry.

Dar Williams on sex roles

Dar Williams sings the haunting song, “When I Was a Boy.”

You can find the lyrics here.

Cicero on pleasure and pain

From De Finibus Bonorum et Malorum:

Nor again is there anyone who loves or pursues or desires to obtain pain of itself, because it is pain, but because occasionally circumstances occur in which toil and pain can procure him some great pleasure. To take a trivial example, which of us ever undertakes laborious physical exercise, except to obtain some advantage from it? But who has any right to find fault with a man who chooses to enjoy a pleasure that has no annoying consequences, or one who avoids a pain that produces no resultant pleasure?

Plays well with others

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